What are they?
Venous malformations are generally sporadic congenital anomalies of the veins usually presenting at birth. They can occur anywhere in the body, but are commonly in the head and neck. They are usually felt as a lump under the skin and can appear blue to purple in color. If compressed, these lumps may "empty," and can increase in size with activity. The malformations can sometimes be associated with other syndromes.
Diagnosis is made by clinical examination and imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, and MRI.
Venous malformations are generally treated conservatively if they do not cause pain or interference with function. Treatment options for lesions causing pain or interference with function include sclerotherapy (injecting medicines such as ethanol, Ethibloc, doxycycline bleomycin and sodium tetradcyl sulphate which causes the lesion to shrink), surgical resection, and surgical resection after sclerotherapy.